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215 Archival description results for Agriculture

193 results directly related Exclude narrower terms

Case Dealer

This building was owned and operated by Frank Allan and his son. They supplied Farm, Garden and Agricultural equipment to Bradford. The eagle sitting on a globe statue out front was a local landmark and symbolized that Case equipment was used around the world. The store was located next to Joe's barber shop and the sign for Canadian Tire can be seen up the street.

World's Greatest - CarrotFest

Poster for CarrotFest, promoting the event as the World's Greatest Carrot Festival. CarrotFest was also established in 1998 as Super Saturday before changing it's name to CarrotFest in 2000.

Bradford West Gwillimbury Public Library

Marsh Land

Freshly broken marshland in 1946. The break in the tree line is for Highway 400.

The Holland Marsh Story Part Four

Description : The Holland Marsh Story
(Continued from last week)


Employed from 1932 to 1935 as broker and salesman for Emerson Faris, George Losak learned much about marsh gardening, especially the marketing end of the business, before he became a marsh gardener. Those three years convinced Mr. Losak that the marsh could grow the finest vegetables on the market and in the greatest abundance; that it was better to play safe and handle a small area, where high-priced labor was necessary, and that prosperity on the marsh depended more upon organized and systemically planned marketing and storage of produce than it did upon the quantity it produced.

Mr. Losak sold for Mr. Faris on Toronto, Hamilton, Montreal and other Canadian markets. During his last two years as salesman, prices were very poor. "Mr. Faris has employed some 30 people on his gardens. He put his crop into storage and had storage rent to pay. In February, he had 30,000 cases of celery and we couldn't sell them on the Montreal market for 70c a crate," recalled Mr. Losak.

In the earlier days, there was not sufficient drainage for the land. Potatoes were considered best for freshly-broken land and Mr. Faris rented 100 acres from Manson and May on the Kind side of the river and planted them in potatoes. In the Fall, lack of roads made it next impossible to bring out that crop. The potatoes were as nearly perfect to look at as the potatoes possibly can be and the first lot sold rapidly on the markets. But the second shipment was another story, no one wanted them; they were too wet. "Marsh potatoes are 60% better than those early potatoes. It was too wet land that spoiled the early crops, and the well-drained gardens today grow good potatoes," says George Losak.

That the marsh should have an expert on fertilizers is the opinion of Mr. Losak. He believes that the yearly addition of fertilizers to the land, without scientific research on its needs will result in a lack of balance in the soil of the necessary chemicals. "Why, in 1934, we grew 540 crates of No. 1 lettuce on one acre," recalled Mr. Losak. "We could not do that today."

The late Job Morris was one of the early and successful gardeners on the Bradford Scheme. He owned quite a large area in the early days, most of which has been sub-divided into smaller gardens now. Among other early gardeners in Bradford still here were John Kacmar, Gregory Semenuk, Andy Simurds, Jos. Kulha, Steve Kapisak, Mike Kasik, Steve Kiss, S. Csamer and W. Desyk.

Yes, disappointment and failure paved the way for later success. George Losak saw poor prices discourage Emerson Faris, so that he gave up big gardens. Losak bought garden from the Faris area when it was sub-divided in 1936, paid down all he could afford with "a promise to pay" inthe Fall. But it wasn't a good year, he couldn't meet the promised payment and lost all. The next year, he bought on the canal bank, where he still is successfully gardening 10 acres. Others who had come in on rented land that year also bought, and thus the Bradford gardens were populated by small gardeners.


Early in their experience as gardeners, it was recalled by the marsh population that organization was needed among them if the products of their labours were to bring in fair financial returns. Storage was also a problem for early days. If produce was not to cause a terrific price slump at harvest time by "glutting" the market, it had to be held over and put on the market gradually during the early months of Winter. Storage space in the city was always expensive and often very unsatisfactory, as produce was not always in marketable condition when removed later.

The first marsh growers organization was among the Hollanders and was know as the Dutch Growers' Association, with Jan Rupke as president and Mr. Havinga secretary-treasurer. The Ratepayers Association followed. Its first president was P. Jaques. The late Anthony Sneep was the next president and Wm. Watson has held that office for the past number of years. Jack Van Luyk has been secretary-treasurer throughout the years the Association has functioned. Another organization which is still in active operation is the Holland Marsh Co-operative. Wm. Valenteyn has been its chairman throughout the years and T.E. Bell its secretary-treasurer. Others serving on the executive include C. Davis, Ronald Jaques, H. Prins, W. Eek, Jack Lindner, Wm. Watson, Sr., George Horlings, Wm. Horlings, J. Wist, C. Brouwer, the Verkaik brothers and others.

Not only did the Holland Marsh Cooperative organize for marketing purposes, but members provided themselves with a building which is suitable for th storage of certain vegetables, by purchasing the former factory building, located at the eastern limits of Holland Street. This building has proved very satisfactory. When the Co-operative bought it, money had to be borrowed from the Ontario Government, but the management has been able to pay back the entire debt. Money was again borrowed recently for improvements which have been made on the building and the directors are confident that this obligation will soon be met.

On the Bradford Scheme, the growers organized the Bradford Marsh Growers' Co-operative Association and bought the mill building. This served members needs fairly well for some time, but this group had more obstacles to overcome than growers on other parts of the marsh. There is possibly a more varied racial origin among this group and no matter how congenially they endeavour to work together the differences, in language especially, are an obstacle. At any rate, the realizing of the big storage co-operative dream in 1947 solved a great part of the need these growers had felts, and a few weeks ago, they sold their mill property.


The first association formed on the marsh, which has continued to serve its members since the days of its organization, and is still serving actively, is the Holland Marsh Ratepayers' Association. Organized in 1940, it is holding a meeting at the end of this week.

"Way back" in 1940, the war years' boom hadn't yet reached the marsh. Gardeners were getting a living, and thankful for that, but life was still quite a struggle. "We formed the Association for two purposes," stated our informant, "to get acquainted and to get improvements."

The Ratepayers' Association is comprised of ratepayers on some 2,000 acres of garden land, including territory from the bridge to Strawberry Lane, concessions 3 and 4 of King. It began with 90 members and in these "not so prosperous" days, practically every member was at every meeting. The capacity of the school-house was taxed to its limit, with the men standing even in the vestibules. The road was still a hard climb in those days and every man was out to do his part in building for the future. "Strange to say," said an official of the Association, "when things got good the attendance fell off."

Did the Association accomplish its aims?

If you doubt it did, do some recollecting. As stated before, one objective was that the marsh growers should become acquainted with one another. Not only did they get to know each other, but they got to know Bradford and Bradford to know them. The ladies of Bradford should recall those Ratepayers' Association banquets just as vividly as do the ladies from the marsh. We certainly did get acquainted. The executive of the Ratepayers' Association bargained with the ladies of Bradford Women's Institute to serve chicken dinner for them and their ladies (around 200 in all) on three or four successive years. We certainly all became acquainted at those banquets.

And through the war years, do you recall the big sums of money raised for Red Cross and War Victims' Fund at the big auction sales, following those banquet dinners? The growers brought in their produce, and other products from the wholesale houses, and auctioned them for sale, raising in the neighbourhood of $1,000 for a war charity. Yes, that was the Ratepayers' Association.

One Objective Not Attained

They organized for improvements and they got improvements. This Association has sent delegates to councils and to Queen's Park, time and again, with requests and have received courteous consideration, usually eventually having their mission crowned with success. "We have been most fortunate in our members of Legislature and Cabinet Ministers," said our informant. "The Minister of Agriculture, the Minister of the Department of Highways, and the Minister of Planning and Development at Queen's Park have always given our deputation their personal attention. They have visited us and know from personal experience what are our problems. They have almost invariably agreed with our requests."

What has been accomplished? This Association played a part in these endeavours which finally resulted in a special Act in Parliament known as "The Holland Marsh Roads Act," which was a tremendous accomplishment and made possible the opening of of new marsh roads and the improvement of old ones. The improvement in the pumping system is another forward step in which this Association had a hand.

"In fact," stated our informant, "we've usually got what we went after, with exception of that direct road into Bradford. Bradford is our town; the business of the marsh is handled here, and the railway accommodation here would be hard to beat -- produce is handled to the greatest satisfaction of marsh growers."

Percival Jaques was the Association's first president and a good foundation was laid for the years which followed as a result of his energies. The late Mr. Anthony Sneep was the second president and Wm. Watson is the organization's present capable head. Jack Van Luyk has been the efficient secretary since the Association was formed.


As stated before, there is only one village on the marsh -- the Dutch Village of Ansnorveld. The building of their church almost immediately followed the building of those first houses int he little settlement and until that church was built, the people worshipped in the homes. That first church in Ansnorveld, the Christian Reform Church, was enlarged for the third time during the past year and it is now a building of which any town might well be proud. It is modern in design, both within and without - a truly beautiful church. The late Anthony Sneep was responsible for much of the work on this building, which is the heart of the Protestant Hollanders' community. The church has had a resident minister for many years and his home is in the village. Rev. Mr. Schans was the first minister and the present resident minister is Rev. Van de Meer.

A public school was erected for the village children. Miss Eileen Nolan, daughter of Bradford's reeve at the time of the development of the Drainage Scheme, and an early marshland owner, was the first teacher in that school. The Protestant Hollanders now have a school of their own, the Christian school. This is a private school, and Mr. J. Uitolugt is the teacher.

As the church population grew, a Catholic congregation was assembled and this met in the school-house for a number of years, with Rev. Father Bolan as their priest. They, too, began a building program and erected their own church, St. James Chapel, two years ago. They are still raising money for interior work on their attractive building.

The Czech-Slovakian people have a good-sized congregation of their own. They worship in Bradford United Church and have their resident minister in Bradford, Rev. E. Velebir.


While at the present time the trend in marsh gardening is definitely toward mechanized labour, the gardens were made famous in producing an abundance in the highest quality vegetables by work done the hard way -- by busy hands aided by a few simple garden tools. Throughout the early years, Spring planting, Summer weeding and Autumn harvesting filled the gardens with workers, hundred upon hundred of them. In those days, labourers hunted labour -- there was a depression.

This was the condition of labour on the marsh when the Second World War broke out, and suddenly labour conditions changed, and labourers were being hunted and could not be found. The marsh gardens needed men and women and these were in the army, navy and air force, so the gardeners had to plan another way.

Gardening means long, busy days, but the work is not heavy, and, like fruit picking is quite suitable for teenagers. Therefore, the local growers took their problem to the Provincial Government and the Ontario Farm Service Force. To partially solve the problem, it was arranged that the latter secure additional workers during the harvest season.

Farm Service Work Camp

Suitable housing accommodation had to be provided for these teenagers, who were mostly high school students, and, therefore, the Farm Service Work Camp but built at Ansnorveld on the lot directly behind the public school. For this building, in which is included a large well-equipped kitchen, big airy dining-room, wash and shower rooms on the main floor, and sleeping quarters, the Ontario Government provided the material and the building was erected by community labour without remuneration. The late Anthony Sneep was supervisor for the entire undertaking of erecting the building.

The first Summer saw the big building filled to capacity. The Y.W.C.A., Toronto, was responsible for supervising the camp, with the first district supervisor being Mrs. Selbert, Toronto.

In addition to the men and women who each Summer were engaged to manage the various departments of camp life, a committee of growers was appointed to look after the camp. That first committee included George Horlings, Chas. Favis, John Wist, Jr., Thos. Miedema, Wm. Watson and Jack Van Luyk.

Throughout the war years, and the boom years following the war, the camp has served a very useful purpose. most of the boys have proved themselves good workers and have appreciated the treatment accorded them by their kindly and generous "bosses."

Two years ago, the management of the camp was reorganized. It is now known as the Holland Marsh Labour Co-operative Ltd. it is still supervised by the Ontario Farm Service Force and the Y.W.C.A., on a non-profit basis while responsible for the management of the camp in the Ontario Farm Service Force and a board of directors, appointed annually by the shareholders of the Co-operative. The present directors are: George Horlings, president; S. Hochretter, vice-president; William Watson, secretary-treasurer; H. Prins, W. Eek, Gillis Moritz and John Wist, Jr.

The camp is open each year from about May 24 to Novemeber 15, with some 50 to 60 boys housed there during the season. The lady supervisor at the present time is Mrs. Sheriff, Toronto.

(To Be Continued)

Bradford Witness

The Holland Marsh Story Part Five

Description : The Holland Marsh Story
(Continued from August 31)

Chapter XVII.
Bradford Co-operative Storage Limited

An ambition fostered from the time that the first big marsh harvests were put in storage in city storehouses - the determination to "some day" have a storage of their own right here in Bradford - culminated in a meeting of growers, and the incorporation of the Bradford Co-operative Storage Limited on January 8, 1945. Of course, this co-operative was not the result of one day's work. Much ground work preceded the success of that January meeting, but that was the date on which the terms on which the co-operative would operate were finally agreed upon and application was made for a charter. Provisional directors were named at that time for the new co-operative, namely, George Losak, Gregory Semenuk, J. Lindner, D. Sadovchuk and Wm. Valenteyn.
Stock in the co-operative was sold in shares of $100, and the gardeners themselves purchased $92,000 worth of shares, in other words, subscribed $92,000 toward the erection of the building. There were 150 original shareholders. To-day, there are 148 shareholders. This means that most of the stock made available by changes of residence or other causes, has been quickly purchased by those already holding stock, thus reducing rather than adding to the original number of shareholders.
By the provisions of the Co-operative Marketing Loan Act, the Federal Government gave a grant of 30% and the Provincial Government a loan of 30% toward the cost of construction of the building.
With this financial set-up arranged, work on the building began in 1945, with hopes high that it might be ready for some of the late Fall crop. But shortage of materials and labor problems upset these plans and over a year elapsed before the big building was ready for operation.
Constructed of cement and insulated with cork, the $300,000 Bradford Co-operative Storage is the most modern building of its kind in the province and is second in size among all storages in Ontario; Norfolk Fruit Growers Association Storage being the largest. The capacity of the cooler space here is 428,600 cubic feet.
On August 15, 1946, George C. Carson, manager of the big plant, assumed his new duties. At that time, the directors thought themselves very fortunate in securing Mr. Carson. Today, as they near the third anniversary of his engagement, they know they were fortunate. A native of St. Thomas, Mr. Carson was first employed by the St. Thomas Fruit Growers' Co0operative for four years, three of which he served as manager of their cold storage. Next, he managed the Thedford Cold Storage for four years before enlisting in the Army and serving overseas. After his military discharge, he was with the Agricultural Engineering Department of Ontario Agricultural College until being engaged to come to Bradford. With his wide experience it is not surprising that Mr. Carson has proved to be a most capable manager for the big Bradford Co-operative Storage.
Systematic management has put the big building into year-round use. Fall and Winter months, storage pace is largely given to celery, carrots, beets, potatoes and onions. These vegetables are stored and put on the market according to buyer demands, thus assuring reasonably good prices. When the vegetables were cleared from the storage early last Spring, eggs for Britain were stored, only to be removed for shipment in time to clear space for the early vegetable crops. During July and August, the pre-cooling of lettuce keeps the Co-operative a busy place in the period before the harvesting of the less perishable crops. To give some idea of the use to which this storage building is being used, Mr. Carson informs that in the period May 1, 1947 to May 1, 1948, the storage handled 101,000 packages and from May 1, 1948 to Feb. 28, 1949, 160,000 packages were handled.
Growers, when asked if they were satisfied now that they have a storage of their own, invariably voice bu on criticism - "It isn't big enough".

Chapter XVIII.
Big Business

During the past decade, marsh gardening has truly become big business. Seasons' crops are estimated in the millions, according to the bountifulness of the harvest and the market prices; the value of the crop usually ranging from the $3,500,000 mark to $5,000,000.
Several of the bigger growers have their own storages and others are planning building. Among these gardeners on bigger areas are the Verkaik Bros., whose gardens and building make a beautiful settlement on the West Gwillimbury side of the river. This family is in the growing and marketing business in a big way, packaging and selling under their own brand name. In addition members of the family have dealt in real estate in Bradford and built both residential and business property.
Thornton and Fuller, Bradford, while not gardeners, are big wholesale buyers of marsh produce and own a large amount of storage space for vegetables. In addition to being a member of the wholesale firm, W.H. Thornton owns a crate and box factory, making supplies for marsh produce.
S. Hochreiter has a fine big privately owned storage, located on Highway 11, just south of town. Gerald Rupke and John Maurino & Son are also vegetable storage owners.
Bradford Package Sales Limited, operated by Ed. Tupling, making crates and boxes, is another industry in the town, resulting directly from the marsh development.
As well, there are several wholesale buyers with offices here. We have Bradford Shippers, Bonita Distributors, Ontario Produce Company, Superior Shippers, Federal Distributors, etc. etc. In fact, what used to be "wide open spaces" around the C.N.R. Station and from there along Highway 11 to the bridge, is now built up almost solidly into a hive of industry, all in some way associated with the production on the marsh.
All of this shows the actual gardening is just the beginning of the big business the marsh gardens have created. Small, privately-owned greenhouses are another branch of the gardening here.
And the largest industry of all associated with marsh produce - The Holland River Gardens Co. Limited - has not to date been mentioned.

Chapter XIX.
Holland River Gardens Co. Limited

Holland River Gardens Co. Limited, Bradford, is not only the worlds most modernly equipped vegetable packing plant, built here for the purpose of packing marsh vegetables so as to place them on near and distant markets "garden fresh" but has incorporated int he company a huge marsh garden of more than 300 acres, and all marsh gardeners as members of its board of directors.
The largest headache and heartache for growers in the early years of marsh gardening was marketing. Green vegetables had to be placed on the market green and fresh, with the result that markets had to be close at hand, and products marketed pretty much in season. The big, modern packing plant of Holland River Gardens Co. Limited removed both of these aches for the gardeners.
To furnish the background which resulted in the erection of the fine big plant, one of the Dutch families, which bought marsh land in the Autumn of 1934 and came to the marsh in 1935, should be introduced into our story - the Horlings family. Of this family, three of the brothers, George, Walter and Harry, worked in partnership and by 1942 they were into marsh gardening so extensively that they owned 90 acres of garden land and has secured such a large and steady market for their produce that they found themselves forced into wholesale buying to secure sufficient produce (over and above that grown on their own large acreage) to satisfy their market's demand. It was then that George Horlings left the gardening end of the business to his two brothers and devoted his time to wholesale buying of marsh vegetables. This experience gave him business contacts and extended his vision for the handling of marsh produce. Holland River Gardens Co. Limited is a result of the possibilities realized by those with whom he did business, and by himself.
By Novemeber, 1945, just ten years after the Horlings brothers first came here as gardeners, and three years after George Horlings began wholesale buying of vegetables, Holland River Gardens Co. Limited was organized and incorporated. This organization took place following the most careful study of the vegetable packing business in southern Texas and California, which was surveyed personally y Mr. Horlings and members of the executive. Work was begun almost immediately on the big building and by July 16, 1946, the plant was in operation, with the first washing and "icing" of vegetables for shipment taking place on that day.
The writer of this story recalls that first shipment from the plant very vividly, having been invited to see the first operations. It was just like an assembly line - hampers and crates of vegetables, direct from the gardens, removed from the trucks at the front of the building on Highway 11, carried on roller-bearing tracks past helpers who placed them on trays, on into the washers and then past the packers. Celery and lettuce received the "ice" treatment, being showered with finely-chopped ice before the heavy waxed paper in which they were encased was folded in and crate nailed down - all in one neat operation - then, still on the roller-bearing tracks, on to the waiting trucks at the front of the building, or to the refrigerated cars on the tracks at the rear.
That was the opening day for Holland River Gardens Co. Limited, less than three years ago, and the intervening period has been one of amazing progress. Personnel is always a vital part of a company's success and to-day the executive is the same as it was when the company was organized.
The Executive
Mr. A. Dees, formerly of Dominion Stores, is President of the company. Mr. Dees has had extensive experience in growing and marketing vegetables, both in Europe and in Canada, and in this, in addition to his wide experience and ability in the business world, qualifies him completely for his responsible position.
Mr. George Horlings is Vice-President and General Manager of the company and the success of the past three years has confirmed that the opinion of everyone who knew George Horlings was correct - he is the right man in the right place. First and foremost, he is a marsh gardener and a good one. He is one of that early group of gardeners who worked so persistently and intelligently for the things that have made the marsh what it is today. He is known, respected and trusted by the other growers. As well as being known as a most honest and honourable gentleman, he has the necessary business ability, together with a friendliness of manner, which will win friends for him wherever he goes.
George Horlings has two brothers on the executive of Holland River Gardens Co. Limited - Walter Horlings is Production Manager of the company's big marsh garden farm and Harry Horlings is Farm Personnel Manager on the farm. Both these brothers too, married since coming to the marsh. The former returned to Holland for his wife and the latter married a daughter of the marsh, Miss Van Dyken.
In addition to Mr. Dees and the three Horlings brothers, members of the executive include G.B. Cameron, Ralph Matthews and Victor Turner. Mr. Cameron is the very efficient Secretary-Treasurer for the company. Before coming to the plant, he was Fruit Office Manager for the Dominion Stores. Ralph Matthews, who is a brother-in-law of the Horlings brothers, is Plant Superintendent, and before coming here was foreman with the Kelsey Wheel Company in Windsor. Victor Turner, former highland farmer, marshland grower, reeve of West Gwillimbury in general a widely known and popular gentleman, with a broad experience and knowledge of the marsh, is the company's buyer. Every man of the group is not only well qualified for his business duties, but together they form a most congenial group, working harmoniously and well.
The Plant
Fronting on Highway 11, with the C.N.R. tracks at the rear, and located at the south-eastern end of Bradford overlooking miles of marshland gardens to the south-west, the size of the Holland River Gardens Co. Limited plant was doubled within two years of its commencing operations. To the packing plant proper, last year a cold-storage building was added. This new addition gives a year round service to the plant. With an ice capacity of 200,000 cubic feet (or 4,000 tons), this addition has put the company in the ice business during the Summer months, and not only can it now supply Bradford and surrounding area with all needed ice, but it has its own supply for ice packing, as well as for icing refrigerator cars, thus ensuring quicker delivery to customers. An icing deck has been built for the purpose of bunker icing of railroad cars and on car can be bunker iced in approximately five minutes. The company has made a contract with the railroad for bunker icing all cars loaded in the Bradford area, or for re0icing any cars passing through Bradford which may require this service. With the ice season by, in the Autumn, the building becomes a cold storage, with a capacity for storage of 30,000 to 35,000 crates of celery.
Ice packing and pre-packaging of vegetables are specialties of the plant. Ice packing of celery and lettuce has extended the markets for these Holland Marsh products from Halifax to Vancouver, as well as to many U.S. point, whereas without this treatment these products could only reach local markets. An interesting fact in this regard is that of the produce packed in the plant, 75% of it is shipped to points outside the local market area. As well as ice packing the most perishable type of produce, the plant is fully equipped to wash, grade and pack all other vegetables. Pre-packaging is the packaging of vegetables, especially onions and potatoes, in 5 to 10 pound packages for ht small consumer. The onions are packed in mesh bags. A new departure in the prepackaging was begun last year and is continuing with success - the vegetable salad, packed in cellophane bags. This salad is prepared by machinery, with which the plant is equipped, and is ice packed.
While business for the plant has exceeded expectations to date, the equipment and building are capable of handling a much larger quantity of vegetables than has been packed so far, if only additional markets could be found.
When the plant was opened, the management estimated it would employ about 10 person the year round, taking on extra hands in the rush season. During the past two years some 40 employees have been given year-round employment, with extras engaged during the harvest months. Holland River Gardens Co. Limited employees are protected by group insurance, benefits from which cover employees' families as well as the employees.
The plant has a trackage space for 10 cars. It also owns give trucks, which truck for the plant all year, while during the busy Summer season, when its own truck service is inadequate private truckers are employed.
The fame of Holland Marsh vegetables and Holland River Gardens Co. Limited packing has spread far, as is indicated by distant visitors to the plant. These included not only those from distant parts of the Dominion and United States, but from South Africa and many European countries.
The Farm
Operated as a foundation of supplies to the plant, the company's farm comprises over 300 acres. Of this, 70 acres are on Strawberry Lane and 240 are located to the south-west of that area. In reference to the farm Mr. Walter Horlings, its production manager, stated that the new highway passes through the area, with the clover leaf on the marsh about 2,000 feet away. While this farm is operated to provide a continual supply of vegetables to the plant, it only contributes 15% of the total quantity of vegetables supplied for packing here.
"The Holland Marsh is one of the best, if not the very best, land areas for vegetable growing in Canada," stated a company official. "It holds moisture in dry weather. Just go beneath the surface and the soil is moist, while in a period of heavy rains, the pumps take care of extra water. With proper fertilizing, it grows vegetables unsurpassed both in quality and quantity."
The Holland River Gardens Co. farm is a most modernly mechanized farm. Although as personnel manager, Harry Horlings has around 50 employees, without modern machinery it would not be possible to handle to advantage the big garden area, according to production manager Walter Horlings. As an example of what modern machinery can do on a marsh garden, one type of machine was described. Last Fall, this machine harvested 4,000 bushels of produce in one day. In seven seconds, the machine dug, cut off tops, and filled one hamper with carrots. This type of machine is also used for harvesting onions and beets
The combination of farm and plant operation is very desirable from more than the supply angle. It keep the packing end of the business in sympathetic touch with the growers because the packing plant is also a gardener and, therefore, its main interest is in keeping prices firm.
The Future
And what of the future of the Holland River Gardens Co. Limited plant? It has doubled in size in less than three years. It is equipped to handle a very much greater quantity of vegetables as garden production increases. Its products have established a most enviable reputation the breadth of this continent. It is continually experimenting, and branching into new fields, of which prepackaging is the result. It is surely safe to predict that it will experience a tremendous expansion as marsh production provides the produce for its growth.
What does this plant do for the grower? It has broadened markets by thousands of miles and it has advertised the quality of Holland Marsh vegetables over the same extensive territory by putting them on distant markets as fresh and crisp as when taken from the gardens.
What has the plant and the marsh done for Bradford? Well, if you don't know, just recall the population here in 1936. Recall property values, wages paid and business transacted prior to the date, and give credit where credit is due. Yes, the Holland Marsh gardens and all of the industries which have developed from them, right up to the biggest of all, Holland River Gardens Co. Limited, have made a contribution to the prosperity of every resident of this town.

Chapter XX.
Additional Business Resulting From Marsh

And now the story of the Holland Marsh is nearly up to date, but it would be incomplete without reference to business directly, and indirectly, resulting from the marsh gardens.
New businesses have been opened in Bradford because of the opportunity of doing business in new lines with the gardeners. One of these is the Bradford Seed House.
Bradford Seed House
Like most of the business enterprises connected with the Holland Marsh, Bradford Seed House, which is operated by Mr. Harvey W. Curry, started in a small way.
In 1941, Mr. Fred. Edwards, who, for several years, had been engaged in selling a line of seeds, fertilizers, containers, etc., to the growers, decided to move out of Bradford, but, before leaving, asked Mr. Curry if he would take over the selling of celery crates for the manufacturer who was located near Perry Sound. During this season and the next, 1942, Mr. Curry operated without a place of business other than his home - his car was his office.
However, in the pursuit of his business, he was asked by the growers if he sold various items other than crates. The demand became so great that he decided to add these extra lines. It now became necessary to have a definite place of business. So, in the Fall of 1942, he began to renovate his present location and by the following March was able to move in.
Since that time he has added many lines of merchandise peculiar to gardening and farming, and, besides serving the Holland Marsh with seeds, vegetable containers, spraying and dusting equipment, etc., both he and his assistant are kept busy supplying the townsfolk and local farmers with seed, nursery stock, flowers - on-occasion, or whatever they might need to improve the appearance of their homes.
Thornton and Fuller
A big firm which began, has developed, and is continuing in growth here as a direct result of the marsh is the Thornton and Fuller firm, which handles wholesale produce, fertilizers, bags, hampers and crates, etc.
The firm of Thornton and Fuller means W. H. Thornton and William Fuller. Beginning in a comparatively small way as crate makers and produce buyers, the firm has grown tremendously. The business office is still the home of W. H. Thornton and a certain amount of storage space is at the rear of that property. In addition to all this, their crate-making factory is located to the south of Bradford, on land adjoining the marsh, and on the marsh they have a large cold storage.
Thornton and Fuller have marsh gardens. They employ some 30 persons and operate eight trucks. It's a big business.
Makes Business For All
In addition to businesses already mentioned in Holland Marsh articles, directly or indirectly growing from our marsh gardens, we the Bradford Crate and Box Company, operated by Mr. E. Tupling and Mr. Russell. This firm's building and property is what was formerly the main building on the old Fair Grounds.
But new businesses associated with the marsh gardens are not the only businesses affected by the gardens. Every business in Bradford has been made much more prosperous by the marsh people who shop here. The business section of this town is greatly improved and enlarged as the result of marsh development.
And while we lack verification for this, the Townships involved must also benefit, because the land which 20 years ago grew marsh hay is today valued per acre many times over the prices being paid for the best high land, all of which must have a beneficial effect on taxation.
In completing this record of the Holland Marsh, to date, tribute should be paid to the members of Council of the initiating municipality of West Gwillimbury, whose foresight and determination carried through the big Drainage Scheme project, namely, Reeve J. F. Hambly, Councillors Louis Neilly, Percy Selby, W. J. Dales and the late Herman Lennox, and every other one of those men who worked for the scheme; to everyone of the pioneer gardeners, and to all who laid the foundations on which the gardens and industry and business resulting from them, have been built.

Chapter XXI.
Big Business for C.N.R.

Elwood James, Inspector of Vegetables, supplied the editors with a record of the shipment of vegetables from Bradford, via C.N.R., by the carload during the past three years.
In the April 1946 to April, 1947, period, 992 cars of vegetables were shipped from here via Canadian National Railways; in the April 1947 to April, 1948m period, there were 824 carloads; and in the April, 1948 to March 31, 1949, period, the shipment from Bradford was 1,036 carloads of vegetables.
During the past year, the shipments were made up as follows:
Onions, 441; carrots, 51; celery, 171; lettuce, 55; mixed cars, 214; beets, 17; potatoes, 1; L.C.L. shipments, 54; express cars, 29. Total, 1,036 carloads.

Chapter XXII.
The Marsh People

Let us introduce you to some of the marsh residents. There are the Atamachuks, Biemolds, Boonstras, Baks, Bartkos, Bereznicks, Bernyks, Bodnarchuiks, Brinkos, Brouwers, Catanias, Caesars, Chyzs, Csehs, Decyks, De Jongs, Dragons, Dugas, Dutkos, Gajdos, Gatti, Gres, Horlings, Hucks, Hutftusz, Hlmas, Hazsudas, Harvillas, Hochreiters, Havingas, Hurd, Jaques, Kacmars, Kapisaks, Kauchaks, Kiss, Knipfs, Kanyos, Kolariks, Kulhas, Lindners, Lohnes, Losaks, Lottos, Matthews, Miedemas, Moritz, Magetiaks, Maurinos, Megani, Misatas, Malkos, Megalos, Molokachs, Melenicks, Melynchuks, Mestdaghs, Morganthalers, Nuzdas, Nydams, Oosterhuis, Osadchuks, Parrys, Peters, Prins, Petryks, Podobas, Pikulas, Plackos, Phillips, Podabas, Propkochuks, Prymas, Rols, Rupkes, Rajcas, Sauners, Simones, Sneeps, Spezialis, Sadovchaks, Simurdas, Sklencars, Sopuchs, Sakaliks, Sadlons, Siervogels, Semenuks, Soderbergs, Skabernickys, Smiths, Socolowskys, Toorenaars, Takatas, Taylors, Turkstras, Uitvlugts, Van Dykes, Van Dykens, Van der Kleyns, Van Dykes, Vander Meers, Valenteyns, Van Hofs, Vernons, Valentinuzzis, Vargas, Vdovjaks, Velebirs, Verkaiks, Vrabliks, Vandergoots, Verrips, Watsons, Winters, Wists, Wouters, Winterkorns, Wrabkos, Webers, Wolfes, Yoshimuras, Ziemianskis, Zuraskis, Zucchettis, and several hundred other families.
Whether it is because of the word "Holland" in Holland Marsh, or because of the Dutch Settlement, which is the marsh's only village or whatever the reason may be, other parts of this province appear to have gained the impression that nearly all of the marsh residents are of Dutch origin. Give your address as Bradford to most strangers and almost invariably the answer is : "Oh yes, Bradford, you have a lot of Hollander sup there on the marsh."
Well, we have a great many marsh residents who are either natives of Holland or of Dutch origin, but the marsh population is certainly not essentially Dutch. There are many Hollanders, and finer people cannot be found the breadth of this Dominion, but the marsh population boasts immigrants, and children of immigrants, from practically every European country, as well as parts of Asia. They or their ancestors, were born in Italy, Germany, Czecho-Slovakia, Yugo-Slavia, Rumania, Poland or the Far East - Japan or China - as well as in Britain. Most of them belong to divided families, with many of their relatives still in the motherland countries at war with one another and with Canada, and during those years of war, marsh men lived at peace with their neighbours.
Why could a man from Holland, with brothers and sisters in the territory over-run by German troops, live in friendship with his neighbour who hailed from Germany and, ten chances to one, had relatives in the said German army? And so, on down the line, the motherlands warred while the sons and daughters on the marsh tilled the soil and lived at peace with one another.
There are several contributing factors to the unity of marsh people, the first and foremost being that they are all Canadians and Canada has been good to them. Many of them have paid visits to their native lands since the war and without exception, they have told us upon returning that they are glad to be "home". "There is so much more freedom here than over there," they say. They worked together in the years of adversity - the depression years before the war - and they shared the worries and hardships of those years, each respecting the other for his courage in facing adversity. They worked together happily when times were bad, so why shouldn't that friendship continue during more prosperous days regardless of what political leaders in their motherlands do to one another. If the political leaders of our countries became as tolerant, as understanding, and as generous with their neighbours as our marsh men are with one another, wars would cease and peace and prosperity would be the way of the world.
Yet, while the racial back ground of our Canadian marsh residents does not affect their neighbourliness and friendship, is it noticeable that the closest bonds are among their own people. The Holland Canadians marry almost always among themselves; the Czecho-Slovaks the same, as do the descendants of practically all other races, including those of British descent.
They are law-abiding people. There is not a juvenile delinquency problem on the marsh - the sons and daughters are too busy to be "problem" children. Parents, as well as children, are anxious that the boys and girls receive full benefit of the opportunities opened here and as a result, children from the marsh are usually highly-rated students in High School and at University, several being University graduates. Their homes, their church, their families, and the financial progress which will benefit these three are the chief interest of the average marsh man's life. All in all, they are the very best type of citizen. They are glad to be Canadians and Canada has reason to be glad that such fine people chose Canada as their home.
Social life on the marsh in the early days was confined pretty much to church friendships; business meetings amongst the men, and the big annual banquet in Bradford in the Fall. The marsh population grew, its members so exceeded catering facilities in Bradford that the annual banquet was dropped.

Bradford Witness

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